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10,000 Hour Rule Debunked

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If you’re familiar with Malcolm Gladwell’s 2008 book, Outliers, you’ve probably heard about the 10000-hour rule. According to the author, it takes 10000 hours of practice to be a master at anything—be it music, business, sports, or anything else beyond and in between.

The thought that practice makes perfect could be inspiring, but it might be an overly simplistic way to look at things. We’ll look at studies that debunk the claim and look at alternative ways to look at practice and skill progress.

The Issue with Malcolm Gladwell’s 10000 Hours Theory

Before we bust the myth, let’s look at the pieces of evidence laid out by the author to conclude that 10000 hours is all it takes to be a master.

Gladwell’s 10000-hour rule roots from a 1993 study titled, “The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance.” The study, authored by University of Colorado professor Anders Ericsson, says expert performance comes from prolonged efforts to improve. In support of that, elite performers are reportedly related to the amount of focused practice.

Despite Outliers citing his study, even Ericsson himself doesn’t agree with Gladwell’s claim. In fact, he launched a rebuttal paper four years after Outliers hit the market. Ericsson argued that 10000 hours was an average and that some people even put in fewer hours but still managed to be masters.

Below are three factors why experts don’t agree with the main concept of Outliers.

10000 Hours: Quantity vs. Quality

The 10000 hours rule centers on practice quantity as it offers a fixed amount of time to set aside for practice. In skills mastery, however, practice quantity may not be as crucial as practice quality. For instance, 10000 hours of casual practice may not lead to skills honed by 5000 hours of focused practice. 

According to Ericsson, it’s vital to set the generic practice apart from a deliberate practice done with a certain goal in mind. After all, doing something over and over again may make your body used to the task, but not necessarily lead to improved skills. That said, it’s required to adjust the task many times over to attain one’s goal.

Physical Factors

A person’s physical makeup poses another loophole in the 10000-hour rule. For one, Gladwell’s theory solely focuses on the time spent in practice. It assumes that all people can attain the same level of mastery without looking at factors like genes.  

Barcelona-based Biomedical, Evolutionary, and Developmental Genetics professor David Bueno says genetics is a crucial factor in learning. Bueno may have agreed that practice is key to student learning. However, he says there is high genetic heritability in most brain functions related to learning. He also mentioned that genes could affect not physical traits but also cognitive and psychological ones. And these factors all relate to skill mastery.

Feedback 

Here’s another crucial factor when it comes to honing skills: feedback, ideally from an expert in that field. Psychologist and journalist Daniel Goleman says hours and hours of practice will not let you achieve mastery if you’re doing it the wrong way. 

Goleman says there must be a “feedback loop” that will allow you to spot errors and correct them. The feedback should come from an expert who knows the ins and outs of the field for the best results.

Despite experts debunking Gladwell’s 10000 hour-rule, one can still get some value from his 2008 tome. After all, the main point of the book is to push people to work hard and make time to hone their skills if they want to be masters at what they do.

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Nature’s #MeToo: How Female Animals Fight Back

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The #MeToo social movement has gained international attention over raising awareness against sexual abuse and publicizing sex crimes and harassment. As it turns out, females fighting back when facing injustice isn’t exclusive to humans. In fact, recent studies show that certain animals also have their own ways of retaliating when ill-treated. 

Yes, nature has its very own #MeToo movement, and the hummingbirds and octopuses show us how it’s done in the wild.

#MeToo: Female Hummingbirds Take What’s Theirs

First, let’s talk about hummingbirds, particularly the white-necked jacobin hummingbirds (Florisuga mellivora). The male birds of this species have blue-colored heads and throats, while female ones have more muted hues – olive-green heads and backs, with spotted throats. On the other hand, some females also have blue coloring, and they often use it in their #MeToo movement.

According to a study published in Current Biology, researchers found that female birds display their blue coloring. Though birds often show their colorful features during mating season to attract those of the opposite sex, the study found that procreation isn’t their motivation. In fact, males don’t seem to prefer blue-colored female birds.

University of Washington evolutionary biologist Jay Falk who led the study, said mating choices don’t exclusively determine animals’ looks. Falk’s team released over 400 birds in Panama and used genetics to know their sex to conduct the study.

To make the research even more interesting, the researchers placed green or dull-colored dummies on feeders. According to the results of the study, males attempted to mate with the dummies, mistaking them for live female birds.

Falk described male jacobins as the” show-off jocks of the hummingbird world,” and for a good reason. Aside from attempting to court the dummies, some male birds also attacked the dummies. And when this happened, other species of hummingbirds also followed suit. According to Falk, this only goes to show why female birds wanted to show off their blue color – they want to have as much power as the males.  

Female Octopuses Don’t Stand Back

For other animals, it takes a lot more than showing colors to gain a bit of leverage in the struggle for power between genders. Such is the case for female octopuses off the Australian coast. Their #MeToo move? They throw a fit – literally. 

University of Sydney scientist Peter Godfrey-Smith and his team filmed Sydney octopuses at a site in Jervis Bay. Some people call the place Octopolis because it’s one of the few locations in the sandy sea bottom where the octopuses can create dens, thus their big population in the area. 

According to the study, the females throw shells and silt to target males that harass them. How do they do it? Godfrey-Smith says the females hold algae, silt, or other objects under their bodies with their tentacles. They then angle their siphons and shoot water afterward. As a result, they propel the projectiles in a move akin to throwing.

Godfrey-Smith says octopuses often use this move to excavate dens or to dispose of the remains of meals. In that sense, it was easy to assume that the move was a harmless deed without malice. However, they started to suspect that something was up when they saw that the females hit males.

When they gave it a closer look, they indeed found the difference between throws that clear the den and throws that target others.

In fact, they even caught a female octopus throwing silt ten times at a male that was attempting to mate with her. The female was successful in hitting its target five times. The male tried to duck and avoid the projectile but to no avail.

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Hackers Threaten The Alexander Lukashenko Regime

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A group of hackers threatens Alexander Lukashenko’s empire. The hackers say they have data of all corrupt and misdoings of the dictator.

Belarus is a country bordered by Russia and Ukraine. It is the 13th largest country in Eastern Europe, with a population of 9.3 million. Its dictator, who has been appointed into office since 1994, is the first president of Belarus. For close to three decades, Alexander Lukashenko reigned supreme with the most restrictive police authorities. The tyrant used his power to remain in office to date.

However, Alexander Lukashenko’s opposition is trying to overthrow this almost 30-year regime by collaborating with a group of hackers. They aim to expose the wrongdoings of Alexander Lukashenko and his political intentions. 

The group of hackers called Belarus Cyber Partisans consists of activists in Belarus with over 77,000 subscribers on Telegram. Belarus Cyber Partisans has penetrated Belarus’s authoritarian government. 

Leaked information about Alexander Lukashenko

It all started when Belarus Cyber Partisans leaked information they gathered from the most confidential government and police networks. These activists protested against the dictator in September 2020. It’s by using government websites to unleash a series of fraudulent systems — including the country’s most recent election. 

Although Lukashenko won by a mile, the people of Belarus believed that the win was a total fraud. Experts believe that this might be the most comprehensive hacks of a nation in history. 

Belarus Cyber Partisans claims they have successfully infiltrated a majority of the Belarus administration by breaching the most sensitive police and government networks. The group has released evidence of Belarus police crimes, the country’s cover-up on the real COVID-19 mortality rate, and the violent crackdowns on the people’s peaceful protests. 

Since the group has hacked almost all of the administration’s systems, they assured more information is coming. They say that the series of leaked information is just a fraction of the other ruthless crimes that Alexander Lukashenko committed. 

An anonymous Belarus Cyber Partisans representative said in an MIT Technology Review interview that, “What we want is to stop the violence and repression from the terroristic regime in Belarus and to bring the country back to democratic principles and rule of law.”

The country’s thriving IT scene led to the formation of the Belarus Cyber Partisans. The group comprises 15 IT professionals who started causing turmoil in September 2020 when the group began defacing the country’s government websites.

Help from officers and former politicians

In December 2020, Belarus Cyber Partisans sought the help of a Belarusian law enforcement group called BYPOL. This is an organization of intelligent officers and former politicians working from outside and inside the country to dethrone Alexander Lukashenko and end his unjust and cruel methods. Last year alone, the dictator arrested over 27,000 people from peaceful protests. 

A former Belarusian diplomat attested to the regime’s criminal activities and supported both groups’ plans in exposing Alexander Lukashenko’s misdeeds. He says the groups will open the people’s eyes by making the crimes more “transparent.”

The series of leaked information also included drone footage of violent crackdowns of the people’s protest, audio recordings, and video feeds from surveillance cameras and isolation cells. 

Overall, the Belarus Cyber Partisans’ goal is to weaken the regime’s infrastructure by implementing cyberattacks that cripple the government’s security forces. Moreover, the group also ensures that protesters get the protection they need.

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Kim Kardashian Breaks The Internet. Again.

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Hey everyone. Kim Kardashian did another thing. And it’s not what you expect.

This year’s 2021 Met Gala theme was “American Independence.” This theme was so open that the outfits, dresses, and costumes were absolutely all over the place. From Frank Ocean’s puppet to Grimes’ Sci-Fi Warrier outfit, to AOC’s “Tax The Rich” gown this year’s Met Gala was one to see.

And who stood out amongst the crowd? Why, Kim Kardashian, of course.

When people expect something from you, the best way to maintain attention is to take that expectation and flip it on its head. Because Kim knows how to “break the internet,” Twitter went HAM on memes. 

Here’s a compilation of all the best memes made from Kim Kardashian and her attention-seeking outfit. 

If I woke up seeing that I’d have a very wet bed.

Definitely knock before entering.

Some people may be very disappointed when they unlock this character.

Me. So, so me.

Quick! Throw a Pokeball at it!

Best anti-social social outfit ever.

“dementor” is a little on the nose, no?

You know who had a way more impressive Met Gala appearance than Kim Kardashian? Lil Nas X.

Look at how shiny she is. You go on Lil Nas X, with your gay C-3PO look.

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